Iris grossheimii Woronow ex Grossh.


EN B 1 ab(iii) + 2 ab(iii)

Category. Endangered species. Endemic of Southern Transcaucasia. The extent of occurrence and the area of occupancy are less than 500 km2. The species faces threat of decline of the extent of occurrence and the area of occupancy as a result of the changes in habitat conditions. It was included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia under Category 1: Endangered species. It is not included in the Annexes of CITES and that of the Bern Convention.

Description. Rhizomatous perennial herb. Leaves narrowly falcate, often distorted. External lobes of perianth limb 4–5 x 1,5–2 cm, rounded at the apex, with thick purple veins and rounded black spot; inner ones 4–5 (6) x 2–3 cm, brownish–purple. Ornamental plant.

Distribution. In Armenia it is distributed only in Meghri (mountain ranges Zangezur and Meghri) floristic region. EOO is 300 km2, AOO is 36 km2, the number of locations is 3. Besides Armenia the species grows in Nakhichevan.

Ecological, biological and phytocoenological peculiarities. Grows from middle to sub–alpine belt, at the altitudes of 1200–2400 meters above sea level, in the steppe, oak and juniper open forests, meadows, dry stony slopes. Flowering from April to June, fruiting from June to July.

Limiting factors. Loss/degradation of habitats caused by mining industry and grazing.

Conservation actions. Part of the population is situated in the territory of "Arevik" National park. Necessary: monitoring of the population state, as well as introduction into floriculture.

© Eleonora Gabrielyan

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Red Data Book of Armenia SSR, 1989; Gabrielyan E.Ts., 2001

Compiler. M.E. Oganesian